The authors are grateful to many individuals and institutions for their help in creating Early American Paintings in the Worcester Art Museum, the Museum’s first online catalogue. We especially appreciate the unfailing support of James Welu, Director, and Elizabeth Swinton, Director of Collections and Exhibitions. In the Museum’s conservation department, we thank Rita Albertson, Conservator of Paintings, contributed to the technical study of the paintings. Her knowledge and keen eye were often valuable in gaining a more complete understanding of each painting. In the education department, we thank Honee Hess and Brian Keliher; in the library, Deborah Aframe, Kathy Berg, and Jolene de Verges; in the registrar’s department, Stephen Briggs, Jill Burns, Anne Greene, John Hyden, Timothy Johnson, and Nancy Swallow; in development, Marillyn Earley, Deborah McKean, Ann McQueen, Christine Proffitt, Sandra Rapp, and Jan Spitz; and in publications, Kim Noonan.

Botticelli Interactive, Boston, designed and produced this online catalogue, under the direction of Ellen Sebring. We appreciate the graphic design by Gene Mackles; program design by Stuart A. Malone and Catherine E. White; project coordination of Michael Roper and Dustin DiTommaso; page layout by Andrew Burstein; and programming and integration by Stuart Lipsky. Phil Freshman and Lisa Siegrist edited the text.

A number of foundations and endowments have generously supported this publication and a related CD-Rom, which will be published in 2001. Major support for this project was provided by The Henry Luce Foundation. Additional generous support was provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, Hoche-Scofield Foundation, The Sudbury Foundation, and Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities, a state program of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

A number of docents, volunteers, and interns contributed research for the catalogue. They include Elizabeth Ayres, Pamela Betts, Tammy Butler, John Delorey, Ann Hunt, Otti Levine, Georgia Livziey, Shauna Meegan, Colleen Moore, Danielle Mysliwiec, Ann Pax, Patricia Peterson, Anne Popadic, Sokrat Postol, Patricia Pulda, Cynthia Richards, Leslie Robertson, Lisa Sakata, Jennifer Staub, and Emily Wolf. A special thanks is owed to Maxine Tourigny and the late Marianne Gibson, who both gave an extraordinary amount of time to research for this publication.

Dozens of professors, librarians, archivists, and private individuals generously lent us their time and expertise. They include Ann Uhry Abrams, William Adair; John Alban, Norfolk Record Office, Norwich, England; Carol Damon Andrews; F. Michael Angelo, Independence Seaport Museum, Philadelphia; Nigel Arch, Kensington Palace, State Apartments and Royal Dress Collection, London; Nan MacMillan Barrell, James K. Barter; Denise J. Bastien, John Nicholas Brown Center, Brown University, Providence, R.I.; Ronald C. Bauman; Eric W. Baumgartner, Hirschl and Adler Galleries, N.Y., N.Y.; Hugh Belsey, Gainsborough’s House, Suffolk, England; Colin Benbow, Bermuda Historical Society; Kate Best, Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Michelle Boardman, Allentown Art Museum, Allentown, Pa.; Mark Bockrath, Winterthur Museum, Winterthur, Del.; Alice Boggs, Salem County Historical Society, N.J.; Elizabeth C. Bouvier, Supreme Judicial Court Archives, Boston; Lillian Brenwasser, Kennedy Galleries, N.Y., N.Y.; Holly Trostle Brigham; John L. Brooke, Tufts University, Medford, Mass.; Kathleen Brown, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Mary Burrus; and Steven C. Bullock, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass.

And Paul J. Cammarata, Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.; James R. Campbell, Samuel E. Weir Collection, Ontario, Canada; Meredith Dunbar Carlson; Elizabeth M. Chapin, Christie’s, Boston; George Clarke; Patrick Conner, Martyn Gregory, London; Nym Cooke, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass.; Benjamin Craver; Cathy Crocker, Bolton Historical Society, Bolton, Mass.; Susan Danly, Mead Art Museum, Amherst, Mass.; Anne Davis and Scott Davis, Rutland Historical Society, Rutland, Mass.; Connie Day, Bermuda National Trust; Cornelia Dayton, University of Connecticut, Storrs; David Dearinger, National Academy of Design, N.Y., N.Y.; Claire Dempsey, American and New England Studies, Boston University; Adele Dillon, Atkinson Historical Society, Atkinson, N.H.; John Dolan, Worcester Probate and Family Court, Worcester, Mass.; Thomas Doughton, Jacques Downs; Georgiana Druchyk, Copley Society, Boston; Lydia Dufour, Frick Art Reference Library, N.Y., N.Y.; William P. Dunham, Jr.; Jane E. Epstein, The Noyes Museum of Art, Oceanville, N.J.; Dorinda Evans, Emory University, Atlanta; and Mark L. Evans, National Museum of Wales.

And Martha Fales; Richard S. Field, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn.; Walter J. Fraser; Elizabeth E. Fuller, Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia; Laurel Gabel, Association for Gravestone Studies; Susan Foster Garton, Catalogue of American Portraits, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Nancy E. Gaudette, Worcester Public Library, Worcester, Mass.; William H. Gerdts; Nan Godet, Bermuda Archives; Roy Goodman, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia; Frederic D. Grant, Jr., Donald R. Gray; Peter Griffith, Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, Mass.; Sandra Grindlay, University Portrait Collection, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Wallace B. Gusler, Colonial Williamsburg, Va.; Peter Harrington, John Hay Library, Brown University Library, Providence, R.I.; John Hattendorf, Naval War College, Newport, R.I.; Douglas Henderson, Weston Historical Society, Weston, Mass.; Christine Hennessey, Inventory of American Paintings, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; John Herron, Jr.; R. Bruce Hoadley, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Peter Holland, Quatour Coronati Lodge, London; Mrs. S.K. Hopkins, National Army Museum, Chelsea, London; D. Roger Howlett, Child’s Gallery, Boston; Maris S. Humphreys, Redwood Library and Athenaeum, Newport, R.I.; and Mary Hussey-Freke.

And Stephen B. Jareckie, Baird Jarman; Michael Jarvis, Department of History, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va.; Marsha Jebb, Portsmouth Athenaeum, Portsmouth, N.H.; Matthew Jones, Dorset Record Office, Dorchester, England; Paul Joyner, National Library of Wales; Margaret Kaiser, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.; Michael Kammen, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Judy Keller, Worcester Family History Center, Worcester, Mass.; Samantha K. Kimpel, The Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio; Andrea Kirkpatrick, New Brunswick Museum, St. John, Canada; Gregory T. Knouff, David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, Pa.; Mark Laird; Phil Lapsansky, Library Company of Philadelphia; Adrian Le Harivel, National Gallery of Ireland; Ruth Levin, Bennington Museum, Vt.; Leah Lipton, Danforth Museum of Art, Framingham, Mass.; Margaret Lloyd; Robert Mackintosh, South Carolina Archives, Columbia, S.C.; Ann C. Madonia, Muscarelle Museum of Art, Williamsburg, Va.; Rebecca P. Maier; George Meagher, American Military Museum, Charleston; Michael J. McAfee, West Point Museum, West Point, N.Y.; Judith McCulloch, Cape Ann Historical Museum, Gloucester, Mass.; Marjorie G. McNinch, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del.; Ann Mello, David Meschutt; Sarah Bevan Meschutt, Glen Burnie Historic House, Gardens, and Julian Wood Glass, Jr. Collection, Winchester, Va.; Frank C. Mevers, State of New Hampshire, Division of Records Management and Archives, Concord, N.H.; Thomas S. Michie, Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence; Ellen Miles, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.; Jane Milligan, Worcester County Horticultural Society, Boylston, Mass.; Jefferson Moak, Philadelphia City Archives; Beth Moore, Telfair Museum of Art, Savannah, Ga.; Susanna Morikawa, Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa.; Pat Moseley, Ruperra Conservation Trust, Wales; and Marsha Mullin, The Hermitage, The Home of Andrew Jackson, Hermitage, Tenn.

Emily Ballew Neff, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Sarah Nichols, Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; F. Thomas Noonan, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; Martha Oaks, Sargent House Museum, Gloucester, Mass.; William T. Oedel, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Cecile Pimental, Hamilton Room, Newburyport Public Library, Newburyport, Mass.; Elise Pinckney; G. A. Pitt-Rivers; Barbara Price, Gloucester County Historical Society, Woodbury, N.J.; Colette Poisson, Historic Long Branch, Millwood, Va.; Jonathan H. Poston, Historic Charleston Foundation, Charleston; Deborah Prosser, Jonathan Prown, Jules Prown; and Susan Pugh, Newport Library, South Wales.

And Roger Quarm, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London; William Rasmussen, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond; Elizabeth Reilly; Jean Renison, Historical Society of the Westbury, N.Y.; Aileen Ribeiro, Courtauld Institute of Art, London; David Richardson; Timothy A. Riggs, Ackland Art Museum, Chapel Hill, N.C.; Jeanne S. Riger; Marlee Robinson, Bermuda National Gallery; Betsy Rosasco, The Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.; Henrietta Ryan, The Royal Collection Trust, Windsor Castle, Windsor, England; Marvin Sadik; Richard H. Saunders, Middlebury College Museum of Art, Middlebury, Vt.; Susan P. Schoelwer, Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford; William Schupbach, Wellcome Library of Medical Science, London; Paul D. Schweizer, Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Utica, N.Y.; Jonathan Shaw; Jacob Simon, National Portrait Gallery, London; Carolyn Singer, Haverhill Historical Society, Haverhill, Mass.; Kim Sloan, The British Museum, London; Suzanne Smeaton, Eli Wilner & Co., Inc., N.Y., N.Y.; Orlando R. Smith Trust, Westerly, R.I.; Jeanne Solensky, Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera, Winterthur Library, Winterthur, Del.; Meredith Paine Sorozan, Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence; Harold Spencer, David Steinberg, Robert Stewart; Brent Sverdloff, Baker Library, Harvard University, Boston, Mass.; and Laurie C. Switzer, The Powel House, Philadelphia.

And Fredrika J. Teute; Mary M. Thacher, Stonington Historical Society, Stonington, Conn.; Mark Thistlethwaite, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Tex.; Steven Tomlinson, Bodleian Library, Oxford University, England; Robert Torchia; Ann W. Upton, Haverford College, Special Collections, Haverford, Pa.; Charles V. Waid, The Society of Descendants of Henry Wolcott; Andrew Walker, The Art Institute of Chicago; Norma Watt, Castle Museum, Norwich, England; Carolyn Weekley, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Va.; Sohier Welch; Paul Wilderson, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md.; Nigel Wilkins, English Heritage, National Monuments Record; Clive Wilkins-Jones, Norfolk and Norwich Temporary Central Library, England; Katherine Williams, The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, London; Jay S. Williamson, Historical Society of Old Newbury, Cushing House Museum, Newburyport, Mass.; Lisa Wilson, Connecticut College, New London; Harold F. Worthley, Congregational Library of the American Congregational Association, Boston; and Marko Zlatich.

We are grateful to the following institutions and their representatives: Susan M. Anderson, Georgia Barnhill, Jenna Gaudette, Sara F. Hagenbuch, Thomas G. Knoles, Marie Lamoureux, Russell Martin, and Caroline Stoffel, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.; A. Kent Barnard and Kristen Mitrisin, American Tract Society, Garland, Tex.; Hina Hiryama and Sally Pierce, Boston Athenaeum; William Faucon and Susan Glover Godlewski, Boston Public Library, Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts; Jan Hiester and Chris Loeblein, Charleston Museum, S.C.; Sue Levy and Georgianna Grentzenberg, CIGNA Museum and Art Collection, Philadelphia; Henry Adams and Kathleen E. McKeever, Cleveland Museum of Art; Sarah Cash, Marisa Keller, and Linda Crocker Simmons, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Joe Benford and Diane M. Calkins, Free Library of Philadelphia; Angela Mack and W. Scott Zetrouer, Gibbes Museum of Art, Charleston; Daniel Roth, Laura Beardsley, and Kristen Froehlich, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Karie Diethorn and Doris Devine Fanelli, Independence National Historic Park, Philadelphia.

And Anne E. Bentley, Peter Drummey, William M. Fowler, Jr., Alyson Reichgott, and Jennifer Tolpa, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston; Claire Conway and Dana Pilson, Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y., N.Y.; Joan W. Kaufman and Meg L. Winslow, Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass.; Paula Locklair and Martha Rowe, Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, N.C.; Erica E. Hirshler, Ellen Roberts, and Carol Troyen, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Andrew Connors and Lois M. Fink, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C.; Claudia Brush Kidwell and Sarah J. Rittgers, National Museum of American History, Washington, D.C.; David Curtis Dearborn, Chad E. Leinaweaver, and Gary Boyd Roberts, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston; Donna-Belle Garvin and Elizabeth Hamlin-Morin, New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N.H.; Bert Lippincott and Ronald M. Potvin, Newport Historical Society Museum and Library, R.I.; Megan M. Hahn and Melissa Haley, New-York Historical Society; and Harriet Burdock, Margaret Glover, and Roberta Waddell, The New York Public Library.

And Lynne Z. Bassett and Nan Wolverton, Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, Mass.; Karina Corrigan and Daniel Finamore, N. Lyles Forbes, Jane E. Ward, Kristen Weiss, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.; Cheryl Leibold and Sylvia Yount, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia; Mike Hammer and Darrel L. Sewell, Philadelphia Museum of Art; Ellen Kutcher and Joyce K. Schiller, Reynolda House Museum of American Art, Winston-Salem, N.C.; Cynthia Alcorn and Michael S. Kaulback, The Samuel Lawrence Library, Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts, Boston; David Cassedy and Robert Schwarz, Schwarz Gallery, Philadelphia; Anne Grady, Katherine M. Greenleese, Lorna Kondon, and Richard Nylander, Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, Boston; Pattton Hash and Peter L. Wilkerson, South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston; Brenda Howitson and Mary Ann Neary, State Library of Massachusetts, Boston; Barbara Thompson and Jonathan Vickers, Witt Library, Courtauld Institute of Art, London; Ben Bergenholtz, Theresa Davitt, Holly Izard, and William D. Wallace, Worcester Historical Museum, Worcester, Mass.; and Ethel Symolon and Scott Wilcox, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, Conn.

David R. Brigham, Curator of American Art
Laura K. Mills, Curatorial Assistant of American Art
Philip A. Klausmeyer, Samuel H. Kress Fellow in Paintings Conservation